Hadith 101 for Beginner - Abridged Version

+ Al-Hadith الحديث

Hadith are narrations originating from the words and deeds of the Islamic Prophet, Muhammad SAW. Hadith are regarded by traditional schools of jurisprudence as important tools for understanding the Qur'an and in matters of jurisprudence[law]. Hadith were evaluated and gathered into large collections mostly during the reign of Khalifah Umar bin Abdul Aziz [Umar AlKhattab grandson] during the 8th and 9th centuries. Hadith are considered to be second most important source of knowledge in Islam after Holy Quran

+ Hadith vs Hadith Qudsi

Unlike hadith, Hadith Qudsi is actually saying of Allah SWT which was inspired through dreams and conscious mind. Hadith Qudsi also known as Hadith Ilahi or Hadtih Rabbaniyah.Example of hadith qudsi:

Allah SWT said: I am of what my slave expect of me. and I am with them wherever they call upon me.
[Narrated by Bukhari and Muslim]

+ Components of a hadith

1)The Matn: the text of the report[content of hadith],
2)The Isnad: chain of narrators, which documents the route of narrator by which the report has been transmitted.
3)The Sanad: literally means 'support'[standing of hadith], determine the authenticity and weakness of hadith.

+ Mustalah Al-Hadith (Science of Hadith)

Studies and terminologies on the acceptabilities of narrated hadith. Ibn al-Salah[Hadith Expert] said, "A hadith, according to its specialists, is divided into ṣaḥīḥ, ḥasan and ḍaˤīf. While the individual terms of hadith terminology are many, many more than these three terms, the final outcome is essentially determining whether a particular hadith is ṣaḥīḥ and, therefore, actionable, or ḍaˤīf and not actionable

Ṣaḥīḥ, (صَحِيْح), is best translated as authentic. This definition of Ibn Hajar illustrates that there are five conditions to be met for a particular hadith to be considered ṣaḥīḥ.

1) is that each narrator in the chain of narration must be trustworthy.
2) each narrator must be reliable in his ability to preserve that narration - be it in his ability to memorize to the extent that he can recall it as he heard it, or, that he has written it as he heard it, and has preserved that written document unchanged.
3) the isnād[line of narration] must be connected [muttasil] in that each narrator could have at least conceivably heard from the previous narrator.
4) that the hadith, including its isnād be free of an 'illah or hidden, but detrimental, flaw - such as it being established that two narrators, while having been contemporaries, never, in fact, met thus causing a break in that 'chain'.
5) Hadith must be free of irregularity, meaning that it not contradict another hadith better established than it.

Sahih and hasan can be used as an argument to make legal ruling.

Ḥasan, (حَسَن), linguistically means good , it expresses the categorization of a hadith's authenticity as acceptable for use as a religious evidence, however, not established to the extent of ṣaḥīḥ. Any hadith which did not met one of all the sahih requirement, will fall under hasan.

Ḍaˤīf, (ضَعِيْف), is the categorization of a hadith as weak. Ibn Hajar described the cause of a hadith being classified as weak as
1)due to discontinuity in the chain of narrators
2)due to some criticism of a narrator. This discontinuity referrs to the omission of a narrator occurring at different positions within the isnād[Chain of Narrator] and is referred to using specific terminology accordingly as discussed below.

+ Types of discontinuity in Line of Narration-Isnad

Discontinuity in the beginning of the isnād, from the end of the collector of that hadith, is referred to as mu'allaq, (مُعَلَّق), literally, 'suspended'. Mu'allaq refers to the omission of one or more narrators.

Mursal, (مُرْسَل), literally means 'hurried'. If the narrator between the Successor and Muhammad is omitted from a given isnād, the hadith is mursal.

From the categories of discontinuity is muˤḍal, (مُعْضَل), which is the omission of two or more consecutive narrators from the isnād

A munqaṭi', (مُنْقَطِع), hadith, literally 'broken', is one in which the isnād of people reporting the hadith is disconnected at any point. The isnād of a hadith that appears to be muttaṣil, but one of the reporters is known to have never heard hadith from his immediate authority, even though they lived at the same time, is munqaṭi'. It is also applied when someone says "a man told me"[narrated by unknown in the chain].

+ Other Discrepencies and Category of Weakness

Munkar, (مُنْكَر), literally means 'denounced'. According to Ibn Hajar, if a narration which goes against another authentic hadith is reported by a weak narrator, it is known as munkar. Traditionists as late as Ahmad used to simply label any hadith of a weak reporter as munkar

Shādhdh, (شاذّ), literally means 'irregular'. According to al-Shafi'i, a shādhdh hadith is one which is reported by a trustworthy person who contradicts the narration of a person more reliable than him. It does not include a hadith which is unique in its matn and is not narrated by someone else

Muḍṭarib, (مُضْطَرِب), literally means 'shaky'. According to Ibn Kathir, if reporters disagree about a particular shaikh, or about some other points in the isnād or the matn, in such a way that none of the opinions can be preferred over the others, and thus there is irreconcilable uncertainty, such a hadith is called muḍṭarib

A hadith that is mawḍū', (مَوْضُوْع), is one determined to be fabricated and cannot be attributed to its origin. Al-Dhahabi defines mawḍūˤ as a hadith the text of which contradicts established norms of the Prophet's sayings (may Allah bless him and grant him peace), or its reporters include a liar,

+ Classification in numbers of narrator

Mutawatir [Many]
The first category is mutawatir, (مُتَواتِر), or a 'successive' narration. A successive narration is one conveyed by narrators so numerous that it is not conceivable that they have agreed upon an untruth thus being accepted as unquestionable in its veracity.example of hadith:

"Those who invent lies on my name on purpose, he should place his seat in the hell fire" [Abu Hurairah- According to Imam Nawawi it was narrated by 200 companions]

Ahaad [Few]
The second category, ahaad, (آحاد), or singular narration, refers to any hadith not classified as mutawatir.In hadith terminology, it refers to a hadith not fulfilling all of the conditions necessary to be deemed mutawatir. Sub Category of Ahaad:

The first category is mashhur, (مَشْهُوْر), and refers to a hadith conveyed by three or more narrators but is not considered mutawatir
`Aziz, (عَزِيْز), is any hadith conveyed by two narrators in any given level of a hadith's isnād.
A gharib, (غَرِيْب), hadith is one conveyed by only one narrator.

+ On Practicing base on Hadith Dhaif [Weak Hadith]

Imam An-Nawawi[a highly credible scholar] said:

The Ulama' from hadith expert, fiqh[ruling] expert and others said: it is allowed and preferred for one to practice based on dhaif hadith in terms of fada'il targhib and tarhib as along it does not fall under hadith maudhu'[fabricated].
[Al Azkar topic 5.]

Fadha'il - the benefits and rewards of certain ibadah
Targhib - motivation to do righteous deeds
Tarhib - threat on those who committed ma'siyah [bad deeeds]

Furthered by Imam An-Nawawi:

1. Dhaif Hadith cant be used to make rulings
2. Can be practiced based on fadhail targhib and tarhib as long it is not maudhu'[fabricated]


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Hope its beneficial,
wallahu subhanawa ta'ala a'lam


10 comment:

at: January 26, 2010 at 12:50 AM said...


Syafiq Afifi says:
at: January 26, 2010 at 10:46 AM said...

tu la.aritu aku pi ceramah, ada la sorang anti hadith cuba counter dia

dia jawab

xpe, nanti family awak meninggal, biar je dia atas sofa sampai reput, sbb dlm quran xda ajar kafan etc


a.j. says:
at: January 26, 2010 at 1:24 PM said...

ouch ... point yg betul dan mengerikan ... =)

ishare whomyrare says:
at: January 26, 2010 at 9:17 PM said...

salam there to the a.j,
your blog are much better than mine. you're really great in writing and photography. i like your photographs. I'm still dreaming taking pictures with DSLR. Unfortunately, i'm don't have that much money to buy camera. Anyway can you teach me to customize my empty blog?

a.j. says:
at: January 27, 2010 at 8:12 AM said...


huhu all the dslrs pics, it wasnt my camera ... i used my friend's ... cant afford too =) but you can still take good pictures using compact camera and Photoshop or Lightroom the pics to eradicate minor faults and enhance =B

Sure ... i think might be able to help out with your blogs =)

at: February 1, 2010 at 3:39 AM said...

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a.j. says:
at: February 2, 2010 at 9:04 AM said...

Your welcome anon!

at: February 6, 2010 at 6:41 PM said...

Well I to but I think the collection should secure more info then it has.

a.j. says:
at: February 6, 2010 at 11:22 PM said...

=) i do too !

at: October 21, 2010 at 5:23 PM said...

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